A Literature Review on the Development of Tissue Adhesives: Dermabond
Keywords:Biomaterials, Dermabond, Cyanoacrylate, Skin Adhesive
Dermabond is a tissue adhesive used as a mechanism for wound closure. Harry Wesley Coover Jr. first discovered the ‘super glue’ like properties of cyanoacrylate compounds during World War II while researching a clear plastic for use in gunsights. In 1960 Coover partnered with Ethicon (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson), to investigate the medical applications of Cyanoacrylates, with research support and funding provided by Ethicon. In 1964 the FDA disapproved, Coover’s n-butyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for medical use and in 1972 the project was abandoned. In the 1980’s scientists at Tri-Point Medical Corporation, led by Jeffrey C. Leung and Jeffrey G. Clark began working on cyanoacrylate skin adhesives initially put forward as “Traumaseal”. In 1996 Tri-Point renamed itself Closure Medical Corporation and partnered with Ethicon, releasing their formulation under the name “Dermabond”. The FDA classifies Dermabond as a Class III medical device, meaning it requires premarket approval (PMA) before it can be commercialised. On August 26, 1998 Closure Medical received FDA approval for Dermabond. Under the conditions of its intended use, Dermabond was found to pass all biocompatibility tests. Further tests to evaluate the tensile strength and wound closure attributes found that Dermabond performed comparably to sutures or strip adhesives. A large clinical trial was conducted and the FDA concluded that Dermabond passed the PMA.